Scientific profile

My research work focuses on the following areas: the development of the veterinary and bio-veterinary industry, the operation of veterinary services and the transformation of veterinary law in the context of the control of infectious diseases and the manufacture of medicinal products for animals, the development of techniques in animal reproduction, biographies of individuals who have made significant contributions to the development of veterinary science. The production of medicinal products for humans developed dynamically, while the production of medicines for animals was marginal. This problem was raised in the pages of the Veterinary Review in 1901: "It is worthwhile for the said commission to take care also of the manufacture of all veterinary instruments and preparations because these we are already importing almost exclusively from abroad, paying expensive money for them and in addition mainly to German manufacturers". This note marked the beginning of my interest in this issue. In the course of analysing source materials, I was able to establish that the first Polish company to manufacture products for animals was Professor Odo Bujwid's Factory for the Production of Serums and Vaccines, which was established in 1893 in Kraków. This year is currently accepted as the beginning of the Polish veterinary industry. Until the publication of my research, the years 1908 to 1910 were assumed to be the time of the creation of the Polish veterinary pharmacy. By 1918 there were 62 companies active in the production of medicinal products on Polish territory. In the Russian partition 39 companies operated, in the Prussian partition 8 and the Austrian partition 15. In the interwar period, 617 companies were established, of which until 1939 chemical and pharmaceutical production was carried out by 235. Between 1918 and 1939 the Polish pharmaceutical industry covered 75% of the demand for medicines. More and more importance began to be attached to the quality and modernity of produced medicines. Large factories allocated considerable financial resources to research, involving professors from the best national universities. The company "L. Spiess and Son", apart from creating its research laboratory in 1912, was connected by agreements with scientists of the Academy of Veterinary Medicine in Lviv, Jagiellonian University, Warsaw Polytechnic. The "Mgr Klawe" company had analytical, physiological and biological laboratories, and the "Fr. Karpiński" company had its chemical technology laboratory. Thanks to the financial resources involved and the development of scientific departments, companies began to limit the production of galenic preparations in favour of the synthesis of chemical compounds. The research activity not only led to the creation of new preparations but also contributed to the establishment of scientific magazines and publications popularising the achievements of the Polish pharmaceutical industry. L. Spiess published the magazines "Medicamenta Nova" (1912-1913), "Biologia lekarska" ("Medical Biology") (1922-1939), "Medicine and Nature" (1937-1939). In addition, the "Annual Scientific Review of Medical Writing" was published. The Mgr Klawe Society published "Modern Medicine", "Modern Veterinary Medicine" (1935 - 1939), "Vademecum Klawe". Since 1927, the plant of L. Nasierowski had been publishing the monthly "Wiedza lekarska" ("Medical Knowledge"). These periodicals were sent free of charge to doctors of medicine, veterinarians and pharmacists. The year 1939 and the beginning of the war interrupted the increasingly dynamic development of the pharmaceutical and veterinary industry. The post-war period showed how firmly it had its foundations when based on the companies I have mentioned earlier the State Establishments of Polfa, Biowet or, as in the case of Professor Odo Bujwid's Establishment, they were incorporated into the Serum and Vaccine Factory Biomed Krakow. I started working on the development of the production of veterinary medicines and bio preparations while preparing for the defence of my doctoral thesis. After the publication of this thesis, I continued them and the effect was the completion of information related to legislation and veterinarians' participation in the editing of Polish Pharmacopoeia II. Publications extending the research of my doctoral thesis were published in print in "Medycyna Weterynaryjna", "Życie Weterynaryjne" and presented at the 43rd International Congress of the World Association for the History of Veterinary Medicine in the form of a presentation. One of the key elements of veterinary medicine was and is the protection of public health. It is realised by monitoring the health of animals and the veterinary products used in the treatment process. In the interwar period not only was the veterinary and veterinary industry shaped, but also the legislation regulating its functioning. Until 1939, 11 regulations were prepared, which to a greater or lesser extent influenced this branch of the industry. The proposed legal solutions were modern for the time, as evidenced by the fact that they remained in force, with minor amendments, until the end of the 20th century. Veterinarians were included in the work on documents prepared so far only by the medical and pharmaceutical community. After the establishment of the Medical Council at the Department of Internal Affairs of the Provisional Council of State, a memorandum was submitted to that Council on July 31, 1917, stating that it was necessary to begin work on the Polish Pharmacopoeia, a document regulating the production and use of medicinal products. The Department of Internal Affairs, on the motion of the Medical Council, appointed a 12-person commission. The commission was chaired by Prof. Władysław Mazurkiewicz and edited by Prof. Tadeusz Koźniewski. The Commission worked until 1922, when it was transformed into the Permanent Commission of the Polish Pharmacopoeia by the Regulation of the Council of Ministers of June 8th. On April 1st 1930, Professor Władysław Mazurkiewicz, PhD - professor of pharmacognosy and medical botany at the University of Warsaw - became the chairman of the Commission. A new element in the creation of the Pharmacopoeia was the introduction of a veterinary team to its work, consisting of outstanding Polish scientists. The Standing Committee consisted of dr med. and dr wet. Eugeniusz Wajgiel - professor of animal surgery and ophthalmology at Warsaw University. The Medical and Pharmacological Subcommittee included Dr Konstanty Lopatyński - Professor of Domestic Animal Diseases at the University of Warsaw. (1892-1948), veterinary surgeon and biologist, who after studying at the Academy of Veterinary Medicine in Lviv received his diploma in 1916 and his doctor's degree in 1919. From 1917 he worked as an assistant at the Department of Bacteriology and Hygiene and then at the Clinic for Internal Diseases at the Academy of Veterinary Medicine in Lviv, then he moved to Warsaw and in 1925 became head of the Department of Internal Diseases at the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine of the University of Warsaw as a deputy professor. He habilitated in 1926 and became a professor in 1928. In the years 1931-32, he was the dean of the same faculty. The second member of the subcommittee was docent Dr Wincenty Skowroński from the Academy of Veterinary Medicine in Lwów. He was a doctor of medicine (graduated in 1924) and a doctor of veterinary medicine (graduated in 1928). (diploma in 1928). He defended his habilitation thesis on pharmacology and toxicology in 1930 at the Academy of Veterinary Medicine in Lwow, where he worked in 1930-1971 - first as a deputy professor (1930-1934), and later as a professor and head of the Department of Pharmacology, first at the Academy of Veterinary Medicine, and then at the Veterinary Institute in Lwow. It is interesting to note that he was awarded the title of "Distinguished Professor of the USSR". Another committee that included veterinarians was the bacteriological-veterinary subcommittee, which was formed by such famous people as Professor Ludwik Hirszfeld, and Kazimierz Legeżyński, professor of microbiology and hygiene at the Academy of Veterinary Medicine in Lwow. He obtained his doctor's degree in all medical sciences in 1923 and became a veterinary surgeon in 1926. He obtained his habilitation in bacteriology and animal hygiene in 1929 (at the Academy of Veterinary Medicine in Lwow). From 1930 to 1938, he was head of the Department of Microbiology and Hygiene at the Naval Academy of Military Sciences in Lviv and a lecturer in that subject at the university, then from 1938 onwards, he was professor of microbiology at the Stefan Batory University in Vilnius. After the war, he worked as a professor at the Jagiellonian University in Cracow, and between 1952 and 1965 he was a professor of medical microbiology at the Medical Academy in Białystok. Dr Marian Mieszkowski, head of the Military Veterinary Laboratory in Warsaw, was also a member of the team. At the time when Pharmacopoeia was published, that is in 1937, the chairman was Dr Jan Adamski - director of the Department of Health Services of the Ministry of Social Welfare. The composition of those representing veterinary medicine remained the same, the only change, however, being the appointment of an independent Veterinary Subcommittee, in which the aforementioned Prof. Dr Konstanty Łopatyński and Dr Col. Marian Mieszkowski worked I have presented information about these activities in publications published in "Życie Weterynaryjny" and during lectures at scientific meetings organised by PTNW and the Kujawsko-Pomorskie Veterinary Chamber. Modern technologies have long interested representatives of veterinary sciences. The history of the introduction of assisted reproduction techniques has become another area of my scientific interests. Within them, we can distinguish a few basic directions: artificial insemination (including semen freezing technology), transplantation (embryo transfer), embryo breeding in vitro. The beginning of experiments in this field dates back to the end of the 18th century when the Italian physiologist Lazarro Spallanzani conducted such experiments on animals. The turn of the 19th and 20th centuries led to the development of artificial insemination, which became a routine procedure that greatly improved breeding work. In 1890, the first successful embryo transplantation experiments were undertaken. The method's great potential for intensifying the production of animals with specific individual characteristics without the limitations imposed by the physiology of reproduction was noted. For a long time, this work remained at the stage of scientific experimentation and it was not until the early 1970s that these procedures were introduced into medical practice. A separate problem was in vitro embryo culture, which proved to be an even greater challenge for scientists. Serious experimental work in this direction was not undertaken until 1949 and has continued to the present day. In the 1990s, the biotechnology of in vitro embryo culture was improved to such an extent that it became one of the most promising branches of veterinary and zootechnical science. Publications discussing this topic have been presented in "Medycyna Weterynaryjna" and "Życie Weterynaryjnego". Continuation of research on this topic will be one of the priorities of my further scientific work, which is connected with the realisation of the chapter on the beginnings of biotechnology in animal reproduction in the book "Infertility and Assisted Reproduction" edited by PhD. Weihua Wang from the Qingdao Institute of Bioenergy and Bioprocess Technology. The common part of all my research activities is the people who make up the history of each field. In my research, I have paid special attention to Prof. Odo Bujwid, who was one of the pioneers of microbiology, hygiene and preventive health care in both humans and animals. He was also one of the pioneers in the fight against zoonoses. As a student of Robert Koch and Ludwig Pasteur, he promoted their scientific thought in Poland. In 1885, he opened the first bacteriological laboratory in Poland, which was located at 12 Wilcza St. in Warsaw, where he began his first experiments in controlling tuberculosis in cattle. In 1886, he opened the second inoculation station against hydatid disease in the world (the first one was established in Paris at the Pasteur Institute). He was a co-developer of tuberculin - a diagnostic preparation, which owes its name to Prof. Bujwid. In addition to his research work, he ran a company producing sera and vaccines for use in medicine and veterinary medicine. He went down in the history of medicine and veterinary medicine as a pioneer of Polish bacteriology and a founder of the biomedical and veterinary industry. Moreover, I have prepared studies devoted to, among others, Wanda Dubieńska, the first veterinary surgeon in Poland. Wanda Dubieńska - the first Polish Olympian, Prof. Tadeusz Jastrzębski, Prof. Lech Jaśkowski, Dr. Jan Czarnkowski. Most of the research presented in my work is original. A detailed search did not reveal any similar publications in either Polish or world literature. Only the studies on Prof. Odon Bujwid extend the knowledge on his activities in the production of drugs and bio preparations for animals. My cooperation with the S. Grzycki University of Veterinary Medicine and Biotechnology in Lviv and the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine at the Poltava State Agrarian Academy has allowed me to open another research topic, which I intend to pursue in the coming years. It will concern the influence of Polish veterinary science on the development of this field in contemporary Ukraine.

Jarosław Sobolewski

Department of Public Health Protection and Animal Welfare
Faculty of Biological and Veterinary Sciences
Nicolaus Copernicus University in Torun



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